History of Ceramics and Tiles

19 September 2021

Artifacts showing the oldest ceramic art are the ceramic vessels found in the archaeological excavations of Hacılar and Çatalhöyük in Anatolia. These containers; It was made in 6000 BC and is decorated with iron oxide earth paint.
B.C. In the 6th and 5th centuries, the Greek potters began to shape the pots by making changes in the shape and size of the pot, and the Romans were influenced by this thanks to the increasing commercial relations and they produced easily portable ceramics, which led to the development of ceramics.
These ceramic remains are one of the most valuable resources that have survived for 8000 years without deterioration and give us the first clues about the history of humanity.

There are the oldest tile finds in Pre-Old Kingdom Egypt. The first tiles are known in eastern countries from the 7th century. This secret passed to Sicily and Spain through the Arabs. Later, from these regions, Italy and France made progress.
Clay, kaolin, quartz, feldspar and limestone-like materials are mixed in certain proportions and compressed in special molds. After the compression forming process, it is fired at a temperature above 900 °C. Then glazing is done. It is cooked again at around 1100 °C. In this way, a structure with glaze on one side and porous surface on the other is obtained.
It is used as a covering material for walls and counters in wet floors such as bathrooms and kitchens.
There are square and rectangular varieties. According to TS 202, it is 150*150*5.5 mm or 150*50*5.5 mm.
Laid aside (termineson)
laid out
Corner tiled (double termineson)
They are classified according to their flooring locations.

There is also more about the ceramic art that spread to the island of Crete after Anatolia and Egypt. For example, BC. It is known that there were palaces and roads built by the Sumerians using baked bricks in Mesopotamia around 3500 BC. In the same way, baked bricks were used in the Babylonian towers and Babylonian palaces built in 1200 BC, and the inner parts of the Egyptian pyramids were built with bricks. So much so that the secrets of the Hittite, Phrygian, Lydian, Urartian and Roman civilizations were revealed largely thanks to ceramics.

M.S. By the 12th century, more advanced techniques began to be used in the Italian city of Faenza and on the islands of Majorca. In the same way, thanks to the developing technology, production started and when it came to the 17th century, there were developments in tile production. As a result of these developments, some cities that started to produce large-scale ceramic products came to the fore. Some factories in Sèvres, France, Ruen, Holland and Germany pioneered this development.

Let’s take a look at the history of porcelain, which started to be recognized in Europe from the 10th century. The first porcelain researches in Europe started in the 17th century, and the first production took place in 1750. But the first porcelain ware was found in China. The first arrival of these porcelain items to Europe was thanks to Marco Polo. Porcelains, which were first brought to Europe from China by Italy and then to Europe by Portuguese traders, were very popular, and research on porcelain began in Europe.

Ceramic, whose first fabrication production started in Meissen, Germany, is an important decoration material today and is used in interior and exterior surfaces of buildings and floor coverings. Ceramic; It is formed by mixing the clay, kaolin, quartz and feldspar materials obtained from nature at a certain rate, pressing these materials after they are made into dough and baking at a high temperature above 1100 degrees. The front surface of the ceramics is covered with a protective layer called glaze.